The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) is an international treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968 to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. There are 188 sovereign states party to the treaty. However, two (India and Pakistan) out of eight confirmed nuclear powers (i.e., those who have openly tested nuclear weapons), and one unconfirmed nuclear power (Israel) neither signed nor ratified the treaty. One further nuclear power (North Korea) ratified the treaty and then later withdrew. The treaty was proposed by Ireland, and Finland was the first to sign. In New York City, on May 11, 1995, the parties to the treaty decided by consensus to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions.

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Parties to the treaty

North Korea was a party to the treaty from December 12, 1985 until April 10, 2003.


  1. The Republic of China (Taiwan) was an original signatory of the NPT, but was effectively expelled from the UN in 1971. Though the UN no longer recognizes the ROC, the ROC states it will continue to abide by the treaty.
  2. through the Soviet Union.
  3. through Yugoslavia.
  4. through the Yemen Arab Republic and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen.

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